As of year-end 2022, the population estimate for Waterloo Region was 647,540. Based on this estimate, over the past 15 years the region's population has grown an average of 1.41 per cent per year. The regional population estimates take into account the Census population, the estimated to year-end population, the Census undercount and full-time post-secondary students.

There are two commonly referenced 2021 population figures for Waterloo Region. Statistics Canada released results from the Census of Canada showing a 2021 Census population of 587,165. Additionally, the Province of Ontario outlines population forecasts in the Places to Grow - Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe. For 2021, the estimated Places to Grow population for Waterloo Region was 617,000. The Places to Grow population includes a four per cent undercount, but excludes domestic students.

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